ancient macedonian army uniform

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ancient macedonian army uniform

In any case, as we fleetingly mentioned, beyond the scope of their armor, it was the bristling set of pointed sarissai that presented a nigh-impenetrable (albeit rigid) formation of the Macedonian phalangites. Some units have also worn surplus US military uniforms. 40 THE UNITS OF ALEXANDER’S ARMY of well-organised poleis in fourth-century Macedonia (which strengthens the resemblance between the Macedonian mon-archy and Greek confederacies),2 or the fact that ancient authors list Macedonia together with Greek federal states as Prominent in a number of sieges, including the epic Siege of Tyre (332 BC), were siege towers; these allowed men to approach and assault the enemy walls without being exposed to potentially withering missile fire. Simple and easy to understand retrospective of periods from ancient Macedonian history and culture. In addition to around 3,600 heavy cavalry forces (comprising the Hetairoi and Thessalians), complemented by around 1,400 light cavalry troopers (comprising Thracians, Greeks, and other auxiliaries), the Macedonian army of Alexander also inducted mercenary horsemen. Judging by this requirement for agility, it can be assumed that the Hypaspist wore less armor when compared to his infantry comrades of the Macedonian army. And both these essentially Greek groups identified the Thracians as barbarians, on account of their foreign language and boisterous tendencies. [112], Alexander the Great appears to have been one of the first generals to employ artillery on the open field of battle, rather than in a siege. As for their attire, the Thessalian horsemen probably wore their distinctive dark purple cloaks with white borders, while being armored in the similar white-hued cuirasses preferred by the Companions. ) shield, from whence their name, peltast, derived. [111], The tactics used by the Macedonian army throughout the various campaigns it fought were, of course, varied; usually in response to the nature of the enemy forces and their dispositions, and to the physical nature of the battlefield . This was a dramatic shift from earlier warfare, where Greek armies had lacked the ability to conduct an effective assault. The Hellenistic armies of the other Macedonian successor-states of the Diadochi period, which followed the death of Alexander, also displayed a continuation of earlier Macedonian equipment, organisation and tactics. Nevertheless, it can also be assumed that the Greeks of the League of Corinth were pretty well drilled, mainly because of their own set of reforms initiated after the disastrous defeat at Chaeronea (ironically handed by the Macedonians of Philip II). As had been anticipated, the Illyrians stretched their formation in order to bring the Macedonian left wing into action. Suffice it to say, fueled by the personality cult of Alexander the Great, many of the impressionable noble youths from the cavalry regiments may have also tried to mimic their leader and charged into the battle – wearing just their ritzy tunics and armed with the xysta. Collectively the Macedonians displayed a singular bloody-mindedness seldom exceeded by … Sadly the informations on this subject are scarce. Given their esteemed martial value, many of the veteran Hypaspistes possibly also formed the renowned Argyraspides – the ‘Silver Shields’ who later took part in the Wars of the Successors after Alexander’s death. The Macedonian army could also deploy various forms of suspended, metal-tipped, rams. In essence, it can be hypothesized that the Somatophylakes took an active part in actual military encounters, though their numbers were probably very low – in the range of just 200 men. They were accompanied by 3,000 Hypaspistes (or Shield Bearers) and around 7,000 allied Greeks. At the same time, they were trained within the scope of the royal machinery, ranging from menials tasks (including pouring the king’s bath), administrative jobs to even martial requirements. And beyond the scope of standard infantrymen and cavalry, the Macedonian army presumably also had its fair share of light skirmishers (psiloi), who fought in front of the packed phalanx formations – though not much is known about their numbers. Interestingly enough, there may have been a conspicuous absence of shields – the mainstay of Greek warfare, when it came to cavalry maneuvering, except on rare occasions. Many of these valued cavalrymen were borne by the equestrian culture prevalent in the Thessalian noble class – and as such their regiments possibly mirrored the structure of the much-heralded Hetairoi. The longest of these sarissa pikes reached 18 ft during the times of the Wars of the Successors after Alexander’s death. They were also presented with standard yet flexible cuirasses, possibly made of small metal pieces that were reinforced with leather or covered in white linen, along with the Boeotian helmets that replaced the earlier Phyrgian models. The oblique advance with the left refused, the careful manoeuvring to create disruption in the enemy formation and the knock out charge of the strong right wing, spearheaded by the Companion cavalry, became standard Macedonian practice. Alexander was also the de-facto head (archon) of the Thessalian army and the commander of the League of Corinth that gave him the power to levy military support from the Greeks. The basic tactical unit in the Macedonian army was known as the dekas, which contrary to its allusion to the number 10, actually consisted of sixteen man – equivalent of a single file in a square formation of the phalanx (comprising 256 men). The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. While Athens would become a naval power, Sparta easily emerged as the atypical military city, initiating a strict code of conduct with intense military training for every male citizen. Interestingly enough, one of the accounts of Polyaenus anecdotally entails how Alexander himself armed the men who had previously fled the battlefield with a hemithorakion – a half armor that only covered the front part of the body so that the soldiers wouldn’t turn their backs on the enemy. Image of peace, soldiers, homeland - 26244281 And in terms of armor, most of these infantrymen adopted the heavier ‘muscled cuirass’ and the ubiquitous Phrygian helmet. Before the Macedonian army crossed the Hellespont, the mainstay of their infantry comprised the Pezhetairoi (or Foot Companions) – men who the formed up the dreaded ‘anvil’ of the Macedonian phalanx. [115], Following the fragmentation of the empire of Alexander, Macedon became an independent kingdom once again. Two powerful city-states rose to dominate Greece. [109][110], The Macedonians had developed their siege tactics under Philip. The native Macedonians however remained the most important part of the army. In any case, they probably bore a higher rank than the members of the Macedonian phalanx, and such also comprised an agema (vanguard) known as the Royal Shield Bearers (Basilikoi Hypaspistes). However, in spite of these cultural differences, the ‘hotch-potch’ of Alexander’s force was admirably successful in conducting long-lasting campaigns while enduring logistical obstacles – feats that were only matched by Hannibal and his army of ‘multinationals‘ more than 80 years later. At the same time, these Shield Bearers formed the crack units of the army, and they proved their worth in many a siege battle, by taking part in the frontal assaults conducted within cramped quarters. The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. YouTuber Historia Civilis has concocted a nifty animation that aptly presents the famed ‘hammer-and-anvil’ tactic of the Macedonian army during Alexander’s time. Photo about Soldier in uniform of the Macedonian army, a member of the Guard. This ‘anvil’ of solid bodies of infantry was complemented by the ‘hammer’ of elite cavalrymen – Philip’s new ‘companions’ comprising various Greek nobles settled on the fiefs taken away from previous enemies. To that end, in many ways, the destiny and legacy of Alexander were rather forged by the military prowess and organizational capacity of his commanded Macedonians. The army of the Kingdom of Macedon was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. The latter group possibly pertained to the courtiers of ancient Macedon, who traveled with the basileus (king) and convened with him in the royal tent. Beneath this political veneer, the Royal Pages also performed a practical function. He immediately initiated a series of military reforms. Some book about Alexander the Great that I'm reading atm made me want to research the inner workings of the macedonian army closer, especially the recruitment mechanism. One of the clues comes from the position of the Royal Bodyguard (Somatophylax Basilikos) – which was considered as the senior-most rank in the army. Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Ancient Macedonian Period, until … It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-r It should also be noted that some Greek city-states offered their military support in the form of cavalry forces. Addeddate 2014-08-09 14:52:29 Identifier AncientMacedonia-TheGaulInMacedonianArmy Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t6vx3471x Ocr ABBYY FineReader 9.0 Ppi 300 Added to this mix were the mercenaries, most of whom hailed from the southern Greek realms and the neighboring Balkans. Two new pixelated camouflage designs were produced beginning in 2009. Korragos has the meaning of “the leader of the army”. It was the birth of the citizen-warrior. And while grouped under the general term of ‘Thracians’, Diodorus also talked about 7,000 multinational light troops accompanying the main Macedonian army at Hellespont – and they possibly comprised akontistai contingents of the Triballians, Odrysians, and Illyrians. Curtius, on the other hand, talks about how these ‘bodyguards’ performed the function of Royal Pages, which goes against the Macedonian norm that forbade noble male adults from performing menial tasks. By 1996 fully 35% of the army were “professional” or volunteer soldiers. Fulfilling a role similar to the medieval squires, these teenager males were basically taken up as hostages who would serve as ‘guarantees’ of their parent’s loyalties. Conscripts serve nine months. Torsion machines used skeins of sinew or hair rope, which were wound around a frame and twisted so as to power two bow arms; these could develop much greater force than earlier forms (such as the gastraphetes) reliant on the elastic properties of a bow-stave. I primed these 'Wargames Foundry' minis in black enamel to give a good flat opaque undercoat, then primed the flesh areas with burnt umber oil paint, working through to burnt sienna acrylic then mixing with flesh tones. In this part we look at the different types of light infantry the ancient Kingdom of Macedon used. Towards the end of the period, however, there was a general decline in the use of the combined arms approach, and the phalanx once more became the arm of decision. So as can be gathered from this small list of items, the armor is conspicuously missing. While I will argue (in part 2) that Macedonian horse would also have been present, most Macedonians soldiers were Pezetairoi, and a Macedonian army without them would have been strange indeed. Now in terms of equipment, ancient writers and pictorial evidence rather paint a vague picture of the renowned Macedonian phalangites. What we do know, however, is that Alexander specifically recruited a company of the renowned Cretan archers (toxotai), and they were known for carrying their bronze pelte (light shield) that also aided them in close-combat scenarios. To make matters worse, the Macedonian army was all but vanquished – with their earlier king and many of the hetairoi (king’s companions) meeting their gruesome deaths in a battle against the invading northern tribes. Given the sometimes confusing accounts from ancient writers, historians can only deduce that the Somatophylakes or Bodyguards probably comprised a separate unit within the ancient Macedonian army. When Philip II of Macedon (or Phílippos II ho Makedon – Alexander’s father) ascended the throne of Macedon, his realm was beset on the northern side by the ravaging Illyrians and precariously poised on the southern borders with the opportunistic Greeks. This unit, made up of taller candidates, expressly took the position of honor on the battlefield on the right side, supported on the left by other lochoi of Hypaspistes – and together they possibly had a strength of around 3,000 men. Unlike hoplites, however, these epilektoi had to be paid on a regular basis – a system that often severely affected the fiscal condition of many individual city-states. 32. The Macedonian Army has an estimated 15,000-20,000 ground troops (about 1% of the population), although, in reality, it can only muster around 10,000 combat troops. And since we brought up the scope of defensive equipment, it is widely known that Alexander himself preferred to ditch his cuirass in favor of just his tunic, probably to enact bouts of bravado during the earlier parts of the expedition (or possibly due to the heat). Interestingly enough, Alexander also preferred his dedicated ‘department’ of chaplains. These group comprised the sons of nobles who were incorporated into the aristocratic court, albeit as servants of the kings. With all the talk about the elite Companion Cavalry, it may come as a surprise that it was actually the Thessalians who were considered as the finest horsemen in the Macedonian army (and possibly even the whole Greek world). It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-rate power.. The name of a Macedonian officer on campaign with Alexander the Great (Arrian, Anabasis, Book II, 9 and Book III, 11, 14). Shop with confidence. And, when translated in geographical terms, many of the Macedonian veterans could have claimed to cross a multitude of rivers including the Nile (in Egypt), Euphrates and Tigris (in Iraq), Oxus (in Tajikistan), Syr-Darya (in Uzbekistan) and the Indus (in Pakistan). This had begun around 400 BC in Syracuse under Dionysius I. For example, the southern Greeks perceived their northern Macedonian brethren as being uncouth and even semi-civilized. However, beyond their martial capacity, it is their origins that have perplexed historians. An army unit would then be sent to breach the defensive walls, protected by covering fire from archers, bolt-firers, and catapults. And mirroring the honored units of their cavalry counterparts, the Pezhetairoi possibly had an elite taxis of their own known as the Asthetairoi, with its members (preferably) recruited from Upper Macedonia. 28mm Wargames Foundry Macedonians. The Thracians, on the other hand, were perceived as an unruly bunch by their Greek neighbors. (ed.s) (2013), Sekunda N. and McBride, A. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-rate power.. 28mm Ancient Macedonian Army continued A Macedonian General's Command Base. Partly inspired by the great general Epaminondas and his Theban army, and also influenced by the contemporary Athenian general Iphicrates, Philip adopted the nascent ideas of the phalanx, wherein the infantrymen, in their deep formations, were armed with heavy, lengthy spears but armored in light attires. These lengthy spears were also known their distinctive small iron heads that were more conducive to breaching the armor of the enemy. The Hetairoi or Companion cavalry was in many ways a military extension of the political framework of ancient Macedon centered around the king himself. [117], This article is about the army of the Kingdom of Macedonia under, An ancient fresco of Macedonian soldiers from the tomb of, The use of Asiatic soldiers under Alexander the Great, The Campaigns of Alexander, Arrian, VII.10, Campbell and Lawrence (ed.s), pp. The phalanx finally met its end in the Ancient world when the more flexible Roman manipular tactics contributed to the defeat and partition of Macedon in the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C. However, in truth, the ‘Macedonian army’ was composed of soldiers who came from different backgrounds and nationalities. The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world.It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon; previously the army … Originally, there were seven such high-ranking officers, with the number symbolizing their first-hand duties that entailed guarding the massive royal tent. The Antigonid Macedonian army was the army that evolved from the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia in the period when it was ruled by the Antigonid dynasty from 276 BC to 168 BC. The Macedonian Army was a fighting force of exceptional and terrifying ferocity. The most famous of them arguably related to the crack troops of Agrianians, who numbered around 1,000 and carried both short and long javelins. [115], The battle fought in 358 BC near Lake Ohrid was intended to free Macedon of the threat from Illyria and recover some western areas of Macedon from Illyrian control. In terms of panoply, the Prodromoi wore light tunics (without armor), possibly complemented by rose-colored cloaks (and the panther-skin shabraque for officers). To that end, Alexander may have equipped many of his Hypaspistes in a manner similar to that of Greek hoplites, thus suggesting the usage of Phrygian helmets, lighter tunics, and shorter spears. 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